Historya (History)

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Ang kasaysayan o historya ay ginagamit bilang isang pangkalahatang katawagan para sa impormasyon tungkol sa nakaraan, katulad ng "heolohikang kasaysayan ng daigdig". Kapag ginagamit bilang pangalan ng isang pinagaaralang larangan, tinutukoy ng kasaysayan ang pag-aaral at pagpapaliwanag ng mga nakatalang lipunan ng tao.

Ginagamit ng mga dalubhasa sa kasaysayan ang maraming uri ng pinanggagalingang nakatala, kabilang ang mga sinulat o nilimbag na mga tala, mga panayam (binigkas na kasaysayan), at arkeolohiya. Maaaring mga ibang paraan ang karaniwang ginagawa sa ilang panahon kaysa sa iba, at may mga uso ang pag-aaral sa kasaysayan (tignan historiograpiya). Tinatawag na bago ang kasaysayan ang mga pangyayaring bago pa may natalang kasaysayan ng tao.

Kadalasang sinasabi na nababalutan ng kaalaman sa kasaysayan ang parehong kaalaman sa nakaraang pangyayari at maka-kasaysayang pag-iisip na kasanayan, dahil:

  1. Matutunan ang mga pinagmulan ng bagay-bagay.
  2. Matutunan ang aral ng nakaraan.
  3. Nakatutulong upang maunawaan ang kasalukuyan at paghahanda sa hinaharap.
  4. Nakatutulong upang malinang ating kasanayan at kaasalan.
  5. Nakatutulong upang malutas o lutasin ang kasalukuyang suliranin.
  6. Natutulungan ang tao na mali ang kritikal na pag-iisip.
  7. Nalilinang ang pakikipagkapwa.

History (from Greekἱστορία - historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the human past. Scholars who write about history are called historians. It is a field of research which uses a narrative to examine and analyse the sequence of events, and it sometimes attempts to investigate objectively the patterns of cause and effect that determine events.Historians debate the nature of history and its usefulness. This includes discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. The stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the legends surrounding King Arthur) are usually classified as cultural heritage rather than the "disinterested investigation" needed by the discipline of history. Events of the past prior to written record are considered prehistory.


Ekonomiya (Economics)

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Ang ekonomiya ay isang kalipunan ng mga gawain ng tao, pamayanan at institusyon na may kaugnayan sa paglilikha, pamamahagi, palitan, at pagkonsumo ng mga produkto at serbisyo.

Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. The term economics comes from the Ancient Greekοἰκονομία (oikonomia, "management of a household, administration") from οἶκος (oikos, "house") + νόμος (nomos, "custom" or "law"), hence "rules of the house(hold)". Current economic models developed out of the broader field of political economy in the late 19th century, owing to a desire to use an empirical approach more akin to the physical sciences.

A definition that captures much of modern economics is that of Lionel Robbins in a 1932 essay:

"... the science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses."

Scarcity means that available resources are insufficient to satisfy all wants and needs. Absent of scarcity and alternative uses of available resources there is no economic problem. The subject thus defined involves the study of choices as they are affected by incentives and resources.

Economics aims to explain how economies work and how economic agents interact. Economic analysis is applied throughout society, in business, finance and government, but also in crime,education, the family, health, law, politics, religion,social institutions, war, and science. The expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism.

Common distinctions are drawn between various dimensions of economics: between positive economics (describing "what is") and normative economics (advocating "what ought to be"); between economic theory and applied economics; and between mainstream economics (more "orthodox" dealing with the "rationality-individualism-equilibrium nexus") and heterodox economics (more "radical" dealing with the "institutions-history-social structure nexus"). However the primary textbook distinction is between microeconomics, which examines the economic behavior of agents (including individuals and firms, consumers and producers), and macroeconomics, addressing issues of unemployment, inflation, economic growth, and monetary and fiscal policy for an entire economy.


Heograpiya (Geography)

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Heograpiya(Kastila: Geografia) ang tawag sa agham ng mga lokasyon ng mundo. Nakapokus ito sa distribusyon ng likas na yaman at mga tao sa ibabaw ng lupa.

Ang salitang heograpiya ay mula sa salitang Kastilang geografía. Nag-ugat ito sa mga salitang Griyegong γη gi (‘daigdig’) at γράφειν gráfein (‘isulat’ o ‘ilarawan’).

Narito ang mga bagay na pinag-aaralan sa heograpiya:


Geography (from Greekγεωγραφία - geographia, lit. "earth describe-write") is the study of the Earth and its lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena. A literal translation would be "to describe or write about the Earth". The first person to use the word "geography" was Eratosthenes (276-194 B.C.). Four historical traditions in geographical research are the spatial analysis of natural and human phenomena (geography as a study of distribution), area studies (places and regions), study of man-land relationship, and research in earth sciences. Nonetheless, modern geography is an all-encompassing discipline that foremost seeks to understand the Earth and all of its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. As "the bridge between the human and physical sciences," geography is divided into two main branches—human geography and physical geography.


Sosyolohiya (Sociology)

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Ang sosyolohiya ay ang pag-aaral ng mga alituntunin ng lipunan at mga proseso na binibigkis at hinihiwalay ang mga tao di lamang bilang mga indibiduwal kundi bilang kasapi ng mga asosasyon, grupo, at institusyon.

Tinatawag ito sa isang kahulugan sa tipikong aklat na ang pag-aaral sa mga buhay panlipunan ng mga tao, grupo, at lipunan. Interesado ang sosyolohiya sa ating paguugali bilang nilalang na marunong makisama; sa ganitong paraan sinasakop ng nagustuhang larangan sa sosyolohiya mula sa pagsusuri ng maiikling pakikitungo sa pagitan ng di magkakilalang indibiduwal sa daan hanggang sa pag-aaral ng proseso ng pandaigdigang lipunan.

Sociology is the study of society. It is a social science (with which it is informally synonymous) that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop and refine a body of knowledge and theory about human social activity, often with the goal of applying such knowledge to the pursuit of social welfare. Subject matter ranges from the micro level of agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and social structures.

Sociology is both topically and methodologically a very broad discipline. Its traditional focuses have included social stratification (i.e., class relations), religion, secularization, modernity, culture and deviance, and its approaches have included both qualitative and quantitative research techniques. As much of what humans do fits under the category of social structure and agency, sociology has gradually expanded its focus to further subjects, such as medical, military and penal institutions, the internet, and even the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge. The range of social scientific methods has also broadly expanded. The linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-20th century led to increasingly interpretative, hermeneutic, and philosophic approaches to the analysis of society. Conversely, recent decades have seen the rise of new mathematically and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modelling and social network analysis.


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